Maps & Data section of the U.S. Census Bureau's website is a good place to find that data in a visual format. In the Maps & Data section of the U.S. Census Bureau's website you can explore thematic maps about the population of the United States.
Applications for Education
Census data can tell us a lot about the United States. Comparing census data sets over time can tell us a lot about how the United States has changed through the years. Seeing those changes can be challenging to students when all they have is a data table. Mapped representations the data can make it easier to recognize patterns and make meaning from census data sets. After looking at the maps ask students to investigate possible causes of changes in population profiles over time.
H/T to Maps Mania.